It was an instant hit with the live audience, which demanded four repeats that night. Eventually the instrumental came to the attention of record producer Archie Bleyer of Cadence Recordswho hated it, particularly after Wray poked holes in his amplifier's speakers  to make the recording sound more like the live version. But Bleyer's stepdaughter loved it, so he released it despite his misgivings. It was banned in several US radio markets because the term "rumble" was a slang term for a gang fight and it was feared that the piece's harsh sound glorified juvenile delinquency.
Whereas Sutherland talks of illegitimate means and Merton talks of differentials in legitimate means, Cloward and Ohlin Delinquency and Opportunity, talk of differentials in both legitimate and illegitimate means to success-goals.
The important elements of this theory are: Solving adjustment problems thus depends upon relative access to these systems. If in a given social structure, a person has little or no access to illegal or criminal means, he would not be expected to adopt criminal means to solve his Problems.
But Schrag himself has criticised the theory of Cloward and Ohlin based on the above postulates on two counts: Schrag has answered the second question himself. He says that three types of persons are susceptible to indulging in deviant behaviour or joining delinquent gangs: Cloward and Ohlin ibid.
A particular one that emerges in any given socio-cultural setting will be a function of the availability of illegitimate opportunities. The first is characterised by illegal money-making activities, the second emphasises acts of violence and gun-fighting, and the third emphasises drug use and other 'kicks'.
Criminal subculture tends to arise in lower-class neighbourhood where successful and big-time criminals reside and are also willing to associate with them juveniles. Juveniles in this social class do not have conventional role models of successful people who have achieved their success through legitimate channels; but they do have access to criminal success models.
The child has an opportunity to actually perform illegitimate roles because such activity finds support in his immediate neighbourhood milieu. The rewards monetary and other of successful learning and performance are immediate and gratifying.
Further, in this subculture, integration of conventional and criminal values also exists. Since the youth 'fix' politicians, police officials and law enforcement officials and seek their support, they maintain necessary relationships with these people. As a consequence of the integrative relationships, a new opportunity structure emerges, one which permits and facilitates illegitimate instead of legitimate activities.
Conflict subculture is found in areas where there is no alliance between the criminal and the conventional elements. In such neighbourhoods, young people tend to organise themselves in a community of gangs contending with one another for 'rap' through a show of violence and toughness.
These areas are populated by failures from conventional society as well as failures from the criminal world.
Social controls are also weak in these areas. With no organised way to solve their frustrations, the youth in these areas "seize upon the manipulation of violence as a route to status. Retreats subculture is manifested through or in the use of drugs.
It is found in areas where either repressive police measures make street-fighting quite dangerous or where moral and other inhibitions against the use of violence exist. Individuals denied access to 'criminal' and 'conflict' opportunities tends to withdraw into a world of narcotic drugs.
Referring to the availability of illegal or criminal means, Cloward and Ohlin have said if there is little or no access to drugs, it is not likely that the retreatist subculture would develop. Similarly, where the means of violence are not available to juveniles, a violence-oriented subculture would most probably not develop.
Short, Tennyson and Rivers have supported Cloward and Ohlin's theory on the basis of their study on the perception of legitimate and illegitimate opportunities pertaining to education and occupation among Negro and white lower-class gang boys and middle-class non-gang boys from the same neighbourhood.
Walter Reckless also undertook a project to examine Cloward's theory. Some of the questions pertaining to the perception of opportunities were: On the basis of the responses received, Reckless found that Cloward's theory is partly correct, that is, it explains some crimes but not all crimes.
The important criticisms against Cloward and Ohlin's theory are: The distinction, although real, is 'analytical' rather than 'concrete', that is, there are not some things that are legitimate opportunities and other things that are illegitimate opportunities, but the same things are always both; for example, notes prepared by students on small pieces of paper when used in examinations become unfair means.
When used a day or two before examinations for remembering important points, these very notes are nothing but legitimate simple means. Similarly, a gun can be used for killing as well as defending oneself. Cloward and Ohlin's thesis is that candidates for delinquent subculture are those who wish to retain lower-class membership but aspire to improve their economic status Cf.
Gordon, however, says that these two orientations do not exist separately.% FREE Papers on On juvenile delinquency essays.
Sample topics, paragraph introduction help, research & more. Class , high school & college.
Hailed as a definitive analytical and historical study of the juvenile justice system, this 40th anniversary edition of The Child Savers features a new essay by Anthony M. Platt that highlights recent directions in the field, as well as a critique of his original text. Feb 29, · Juvenile Delinquency Essay; Juvenile Delinquency Essay.
Juvenile Justice and Delinquency Prevention. Words | 8 Pages. and the juvenile justice system have contemplated the reason why some youth turn to delinquency and violence. To investigate the reasons, for some adolescents you would have to research on a . Oct 06, · Juvenile delinquency Juvenile delinquency, also known as juvenile offending, or youth crime, is participation in illegal behavior by minors (juveniles) (individuals younger than the statutory age of majority).Most legal systems prescribe specific procedures for dealing with juveniles, such as juvenile detention centers, and .
Juvenile Delinquency Rationale When a young adult has problems in their life (home, school), there is a big percent that they will get into trouble and go to jail for committing crimes of degree of some sort.
Textbook Solutions Master the problems in your textbooks. With expertly written step-by-step solutions for your textbooks leading the way, you’ll not only score the correct answers, but, most importantly, you’ll learn how to solve them on your own.