And lastly the origin of the Harlem Renaissance, and introduction to key activists. Gay Voices of the Harlem Renaissance. Indiana University Press, c.
Harlem in Upper Manhattan. Until the end of the Civil Warthe majority of African Americans had been enslaved and lived in the South. During the Reconstruction Erathe emancipated African Americans, freedmen, began to strive for civic participation, political equality and economic and cultural self-determination.
By the late s, Democratic whites managed to regain power in the South. From to they proceeded to pass legislation that disenfranchised most African Americans and many poor whites, trapping them without representation.
They established white supremacist regimes of Jim Crow segregation in the South and one-party block voting behind southern Democrats. The Democratic whites denied African Americans their exercise of civil and political rights by terrorizing black communities with lynch mobs and other forms of vigilante violence  as well as by instituting a convict labor system that forced many thousands of African Americans back into unpaid labor in mines, on plantations, and on public works projects such as roads and levees.
Convict laborers were typically subject to brutal forms of corporal punishment, overwork, and disease from unsanitary conditions.
Death rates were extraordinarily high. Most of the African-American literary movement arose from a generation that had memories of the gains and losses of Reconstruction after the Civil War.
Sometimes their parents or grandparents had been slaves. Their ancestors had sometimes benefited by paternal investment in cultural capital, including better-than-average education. African Americans sought a better standard of living and relief from the institutionalized racism in the South.
Others were people of African descent from racially stratified communities in the Caribbean who came to the United States hoping for a better life.
Uniting most of them was their convergence in Harlem.
Development Play media Contemporary silent short documentary on the Negro Artist. During the early portion of the 20th century, Harlem was the destination for migrants from around the country, attracting both people seeking work from the South, and an educated class who made the area a center of culture, as well as a growing "Negro" middle class.
The district had originally been developed in the 19th century as an exclusive suburb for the white middle and upper middle classes; its affluent beginnings led to the development of stately houses, grand avenues, and world-class amenities such as the Polo Grounds and the Harlem Opera House.
During the enormous influx of European immigrants in the late 19th century, the once exclusive district was abandoned by the white middle class, who moved farther north.
Harlem became an African-American neighborhood in the early s. Ina large block along th Street and Fifth Avenue was bought by various African-American realtors and a church group. Due to the war, the migration of laborers from Europe virtually ceased, while the war effort resulted in a massive demand for unskilled industrial labor.
Despite the increasing popularity of Negro culture, virulent white racism, often by more recent ethnic immigrants, continued to affect African-American communities, even in the North.
Mainstream recognition of Harlem culture The first stage of the Harlem Renaissance started in the late s. Inthe premiere of Three Plays for a Negro Theatre took place. These plays, written by white playwright Ridgely Torrencefeatured African-American actors conveying complex human emotions and yearnings.
They rejected the stereotypes of the blackface and minstrel show traditions.The Harlem Renaissance was a phase of a larger New Negro movement that had emerged in the early 20th century and in some ways ushered in the civil rights movement of the late s and early s.
The Harlem Renaissance and the "New Negro" One of the most significant intellectual and artistic trends of twentieth century American history, the Harlem Renaissance impacted art, literature, and music in a manner that forever altered the American cultural landscape.
The phenomenon known as the Harlem Renaissance represented the flowering in literature and art of the New Negro movement of the s, epitomized in The New Negro (), an anthology edited by Alain Locke that featured the early work of some of the.
Definition: The Harlem Renaissance was a period during the s when African-American achievements in art, literature and music flourished. A period of great diversity and experimentation.
The WW1 Great Migration saw the movement of thousands of African Americans from the farmlands in the south to. With its origins in Harlem, New York the renaissance affected the United States through literature, drama, music, visual art, and dance.
At this time African Americans began to form themselves an identity and individual ultra for progress. Sep 14, · Watch video · The Harlem Renaissance was the development of the Harlem neighborhood in New York City as a black cultural mecca in the early 20th Century and the subsequent social and artistic explosion that.