The Church transcends the contingent facts of this world, yet at the same time is deeply connected to historical events, for its very foundation is rooted in the centrality of the Incarnation of Jesus Christ. The Christian view of history is a vision and interpretation of time in terms of eternity and of human events in the light of divine revelation. Christianity is the dynamic element in the history of our Western culture. The life of Jesus Christ, the birth of Christianity, and the Apostolic Age the first years speak for themselves, for great historical movements do not spring from non-events.
Other Works Cited 1. Key Themes of Existentialism Although a highly diverse tradition of thought, seven themes can be identified that provide some sense of overall unity. Here, these themes will be briefly introduced; they can then provide us with an intellectual framework within which to discuss exemplary figures within the history of existentialism.
Philosophy as a Way of Life Philosophy should not be thought of primarily either as an attempt to investigate and understand the self or the world, or as a special occupation that concerns only a few. Rather, philosophy must be thought of as fully integrated within life.
To be sure, there may need to be professional philosophers, who develop an elaborate set of methods and concepts Sartre makes this point frequently but life can be lived philosophically without a technical knowledge of philosophy.
Existentialist thinkers tended to identify two historical antecedents for this notion.
First, the ancient Greeks, and particularly the figure of Socrates but also the Stoics and Epicureans. Socrates was not only non-professional, but in his pursuit of the good life he tended to eschew the formation of a 'system' or 'theory', and his teachings took place often in public spaces.
In this, the existentialists were hardly unusual. In the 19th and 20th centuries, the rapid expansion of industrialisation and advance in technology were often seen in terms of an alienation of the human from nature or from a properly natural way of living for example, thinkers of German and English romanticism.
The second influence on thinking of philosophy as a way of life was German Idealism after Kant. Partly as a response to the 18th century Enlightenment, and under the influence of the Neoplatonists, Schelling and Hegel both thought of philosophy as an activity that is an integral part of the history of human beings, rather than outside of life and the world, looking on.
Later in the 19th century, Marx famously criticised previous philosophy by saying that the point of philosophy is not to know things — even to know things about activity — but to change them.
The concept of philosophy as a way of life manifests itself in existentialist thought in a number of ways. Let us give several examples, to which we will return in the sections that follow. First, the existentialists often undertook a critique of modern life in terms of the specialisation of both manual and intellectual labour.
One consequence of this is that many existentialist thinkers experimented with different styles or genres of writing in order to escape the effects of this specialisation.
Second, a notion that we can call 'immanence': For Kierkegaard, for example, the fundamental truths of my existence are not representations — not, that is, ideas, propositions or symbols the meaning of which can be separated from their origin.
Rather, the truths of existence are immediately lived, felt and acted. Likewise, for Nietzsche and Heidegger, it is essential to recognise that the philosopher investigating human existence is, him or herself, an existing human.
Third, the nature of life itself is a perennial existentialist concern and, more famously in Heidegger and in Camusalso the significance of death. Anxiety and Authenticity A key idea here is that human existence is in some way 'on its own'; anxiety or anguish is the recognition of this fact.
Anxiety here has two important implications. First, most generally, many existentialists tended to stress the significance of emotions or feelings, in so far as they were presumed to have a less culturally or intellectually mediated relation to one's individual and separate existence.
This idea is found in Kierkegaard, as we mentioned above, and in Heidegger's discussion of 'mood'; it is also one reason why existentialism had an influence on psychology.
Second, anxiety also stands for a form of existence that is recognition of being on its own. What is meant by 'being on its own' varies among philosophers. For example, it might mean the irrelevance or even negative influence of rational thought, moral values, or empirical evidence, when it comes to making fundamental decisions concerning one's existence.
As we shall see, Kierkegaard sees Hegel's account of religion in terms of the history of absolute spirit as an exemplary confusion of faith and reason. Alternatively, it might be a more specifically theological claim: Finally, being on its own might signify the uniqueness of human existence, and thus the fact that it cannot understand itself in terms of other kinds of existence Heidegger and Sartre.
Related to anxiety is the concept of authenticity, which is let us say the existentialist spin on the Greek notion of 'the good life'.This page deals with the civilization of Classical Greece.
Other pages deal with the Minoan civilization which preceded it, and with the Hellenistic civilization which followed it.. Overview and Timeline.
The civilization of Ancient Greece emerged into the light of world history in the 8th century BC. Existentialism. Existentialism is a catch-all term for those philosophers who consider the nature of the human condition as a key philosophical problem and who share the view that this problem is best addressed through ontology.
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Aristotle's syllogism is .
Aristotle’s influence on western culture and science has been enormous. His writings, many of which survived great periods of turmoil in the millennia separating us from him, show him to be a man of tremendous intellect who thought deeply about the world. Isaac Newton. Sir Isaac Newton (January 4, - March 31, ) was an English mathematician, physicist, astronomer, alchemist, and natural philosopher who is generally regarded as one of the greatest scientists and mathematicians in history.