Regionalism and Realism in 19th Century American Literature In century America the Civil War and westward expansion created numerous changes in society and politics. American artists turned to realism and regionalism to comment on the new concerns of the time period such as the ongoing struggle of the working class as well as the societal elevation of the middle class.
Regionalism and Local Color Bibliography Definitions Local color or regional literature is fiction and poetry that focuses on the characters, dialect, customs, topography, and other features particular to a specific region. Influenced by Southwestern and Down East humor, between the Civil War and the end of the nineteenth century this mode of writing became dominant in American literature.
According to the Oxford Companion to American Literature, "In local-color literature one finds the dual influence Term papers regionlism art romanticism and realism, since the author frequently looks away from ordinary life to distant lands, strange customs, or exotic scenes, but retains through minute detail a sense of fidelity and accuracy of description" Its weaknesses may include nostalgia or sentimentality.
Its customary form is the sketch or short story, although Hamlin Garland argued for the novel of local color. Regional literature incorporates the broader concept of sectional differences, although in Writing Out of Place, Judith Fetterley and Marjorie Pryse have argued convincingly that the distinguishing characteristic that separates "local color" writers from "regional" writers is instead the exploitation of and condescension toward their subjects that the local color writers demonstrate.
One definition of the difference between realism and local color is Eric Sundquist's: According to Brodhead, "regionalism's representation of vernacular cultures as enclaves of tradition insulated from larger cultural contact is palpably a fiction. Kaplan adds that local color's "urban middle-class readership.
In chronicling the nation's stories about its regions and mythical origins, local color fiction through its presence--and, later, its absence--contributed to the narrative of unified nationhood that late nineteenth-century America sought to construct. More recently, Bill Brown and Brad Evans have called attention to the nature of the aesthetic experience through material culture that regionalism offers.
What ideas are embedded in things? How does the narrator gain access to them? What sort of staging is involved in this object-based epistemology? How does Jewett's fiction dramatize the work involved in determining the value of material objects not in culture but for culture, for an apprehension of culture?
Writing about Howells's The Coast of Bohemia in Before CulturesEvans disputes the "nostalgia" hypothesis for regionalism and contends that "what one sees in local-color fiction of the s is not at all the assertion of integrated stasis and purity that one might imagine for it--a last gasp, as it were, for a preindustrial past--but the assertion by artists, publishing houses, and perhaps even readers, of a rather hip participation in the dislocating, tangled complexity of the chic.
Indeed, by the late s, the status of local color had shifted increasingly toward the aesthetic, just as the objects collected by anthropologists became poised to fuel modernist primitivism" A variation of this genre is the "plantation tradition" fiction of Thomas Nelson Page and others.
Much current criticism now reads both 19th- and 20th-century regionalism as always global and cosmopolitan, intricately enmeshed in circuits of trade and diverse cultures in ways that belie its pretense at being "merely" local in conception and subject matter.
In addition, many critics now focus on "critical regionalism," a term derived from architecture and associated with Neil Campbell's book The Rhizomatic West The concept of critical regionalism imagines political life in the present--it thinks about issues of place, bodies in place, and knowledges derived not only via textuality and discourse, but from place as a critical location, an orientation, and a material structure.
Critical regionalism therefore is not a synonym for transnational analysis but a method of critical or global study attuned both the comparative big picture analyses and linked to the deep local. The emphasis is frequently on nature and the limitations it imposes; settings are frequently remote and inaccessible.View Regionalism Research Papers on regardbouddhiste.com for free.
The key risks of regionalism is that regional liberalization is a substitute for multilateral liberation and regionalism shifts power in worrying directions specifically it fosters greater dominance of small nations by hegemonic powers, and it increases the chances of inter-bloc trade war.
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In this rapidly globalizing world, any investigation of architecture inevitably leads to considerations of regionalism. But despite its omnipresence in contemporary practice and theoryReviews: 5.