Social JusticeLibertarianism Neoclassical Liberalism:
Generally speaking, a commitment to democracy as an object of study and deliberation is what unites democratic theorists across a variety of academic disciplines and methodological orientations. When this commitment takes the form of a discussion of the moral foundations and desirability of democracy, normative theory results.
When theorists concern themselves with the ways in which actual democracies function, their theories are empirical.
Finally, when democratic theorists interrogate or formulate the meaning of the concept of democracy, their work is conceptual or semantic in orientation.
Democratic theories typically operate at multiple levels of orientation. For example, definitions of democracy as well as normative arguments about when and why democracy is morally desirable are often rooted in empirical observations concerning the ways in which democracies have actually been known to function.
In addition to a basic commitment to democracy as an object of study, most theorists agree that the concept democracy denotes some form or process of collective self-rule. The etymology of the word traces back to the Greek terms demos the people, the many and kratos to rule.
Yet beyond this basic meaning, a vast horizon of contestation opens up. What values are most important for a democracy and which ones make it desirable or undesirable as a form of government?
How is democratic rule to be organized and exercised? What institutions should be used and how? Once instituted, does democracy require precise social, economic, or cultural conditions to survive in the long term? And why is it that democratic government is preferable to, say, aristocracy or oligarchy?
These questions are not new. In fact, democratic theory traces its roots back to ancient Greece and the emergence of the first democratic governments in Western history.
Ever since, philosophers, politicians, artists, and citizens have thought and written extensively about democracy. Yet democratic theory did not arise as an institutionalized academic or intellectual discipline until the 20th century.
The works cited here privilege Anglo-American, western European, and, more generally, institutional variants of democratic theory, and, therefore, they do not exhaust the full range of thought on the subject.
General Overviews A number of works have been published that provide overviews of the different historical and contemporary forms of democratic thought. Written by one of the most renowned democratic theorists in the United States, Dahl offers a brief and highly readable introduction to democratic thought that brings together normative and empirical strands of research.
Crick offers another brief and accessible guide to the various traditions of democratic thought, while Cunningham presents a more comprehensive survey of the different currents of democratic theory and their historical developments. The text is notable for its discussion of theories of deliberative democracy and theories of radical pluralism, two of the more recent and popular trends in democratic theory.
Held provides one of the most popular overviews of the various models of democracy coupled with a critical account of what democracy means in light of globalization.
Another critical account of the field of contemporary democratic theory is offered by Shapirowhile Keane provides a historical narrative of sweeping scope that tells the story of democratic governments and ideals as they have developed and transformed since classical Greece.
Dryzek and Dunleavy focuses on theories of the liberal democratic state, while Christiano provides an introductory exploration of normative democratic thought. Dunn offers a collection of essays written by leading political theorists that charts the development and contemporary significance of the idea of democracy.
Edited by Edward N. Emphasis is placed on the tasks of defining democracy, articulating the moral foundations of democracy, and explaining the requirements of democratic citizenship in large societies.
A Very Short Introduction. Oxford University Press, Included are discussions of some of the major issues surrounding republicanism, populism, democratic citizenship, and the conditions required for the institution of a democracy.
Presents a summary of some of the major problems that confront democracies in the real world followed by a comprehensive discussion of historical and current paradigms of democratic thought. Yale University Press, A brief but highly accessible and informative guide to the field of democratic theory written with both scholars and the general public in mind.
Dryzek, John, and Patrick Dunleavy. Theories of the Democratic State. An overview of the dominant contemporary approaches to understanding the modern liberal democratic state. The assumption is that to understand contemporary democratic life, we must first grasp the dynamic history and emergence of democratic ideas and practices.
Stanford University Press, Provides an introduction to the central theories of democracy from classical Greece to the present.
Places special emphasis on the challenges that globalization poses for democratic governance. The Life and Death of Democracy.
A comprehensive and highly accessible historical account of the origins and development of democratic government and ideals. The State of Democratic Theory.From the neoclassical liberal point of view, neoclassical liberalism ups the moral ante when compared to high liberalism.
High liberalism was supposed to be the culmination of the liberal movement—thus the ‘high’ in ‘high liberalism’–but Tomasi and I claim that neoclassical liberalism is a higher form of liberalism.
In a liberal democratic country such as America, the constitution is the fundamental part of that social contract; it is a contract between the state and the civil society.
The American constitution is a guide to legislation and its interpretation. Classical liberalism is a political ideology and a branch of liberalism which advocates civil liberties under the rule of law with an emphasis on economic freedom.
the English and the democratic types of liberalism" t the center of classical liberal theory [in Europe] was the idea of laissez-faire.
Other scholars see the existence of non-democratic yet market-liberal regimes and the undermining of democratic control by market processes as strong Notable critics of neoliberalism in theory or practice include economists Joseph Stiglitz Neoclassical liberalism; Neo-libertarianism; Political Economy; Reagan Democrat;.
Classical liberalism was the dominant political theory in Britain from the early 19th century until the First World War. Its notable victories were the Catholic Emancipation Act of , the Reform Act of and the repeal of the Corn Laws in Download Citation on ResearchGate | Democratic Peace Theory and the Realist-Liberal Dichotomy: the Promise of Neoclassical Realism?
| The idea of a separate (dyadic) peace among (liberal.