Thanks to factory farming's massive economies of scale, a lot of food today is disgusting or cruel or disgusting and cruel. Just when people stopped talking about cantaloupes with deadly listeria"pink slime" hit the news. And just when people stopped talking about pink slime, ground beef treated with ammonia to kill germs, mad cow hit the news. Does anyone even remember the arsenic in the fruit juice?
Messenger Our conventional water supply system that continually captures and delivers water is under great strain because of an increase in population, rapid urbanisation, and drastic changes in climate and rainfall.
When the reliance on a continuous supply of water directly to our taps is in jeopardy, we then start to realise that we cannot take the supply of water for granted.
The question that has risen recently is whether Australians are ready to accept drinking recycled water.
Before we answer the question, let us look at what is it we are drinking currently. What are we drinking now? The majority of Australians are drinking rain water that falls on the land, is collected in dams, transported to reservoirs, is then treated to remove solids and kill pathogens, and is finally distributed to the wider community via networks of pipes also called reticulated supply.
Australia relies on rainfall for most of its water supply. Issues arise when there is a prolonged drought, or, as in Western Australia, when the rainfall seems to steadily decrease - thus reducing the amount of water collected in dams. Solutions such as recycling wastewater for industrial purposes while continuing to use rainwater for potable purpose are useful.
Recycled water for non-potable use Most urban areas in Australia are reticulated, and receive water directly to the point of use. Likewise, most urban areas are sewered, with wastewater from houses, commercial units, restaurants and industry being directly discharged into sewers.
Often, a proportion of stormwater also finds its way into sewers. The treated wastewater is often referred to as effluent. Technology to use recycled water for non-potable use such as in industry, and also for domestic outdoors activities, such as gardening is well-established in Australia.
Water considered for recycling is sourced from STPs that have a full treatment scheme to remove most pollutants, and the scheme includes disinfection. Indirect potable reuse Indirect reuse of recycled water for potable purposes already happens in some parts of Australia.
For example, Penrith discharges treated wastewater into the Nepean River, while this water is then used by North Richmond water treatment plant to treat and deliver it to the community in the Hawkesbury region.
In Australia, as most cities and rural towns are sewered, there is an option available to treat wastewater to a quality that is accepted for non-potable reuse. This already happens in Rouse Hill in northwest Sydney where treated water is recycled back to households through a dual-reticulated system.
Sewage can contain substances such as heavy metals, organochlorines such as pesticides and pharmaceuticalsviruses, and protozoa. The recent Australian Drinking Water Quality guidelines do take into account the presence of the above substances, as the augmentation of water supply by municipal wastewater effluent is recognised as an option, and have set limits on these substances.
Recycled water is unlikely to have public support until the public fully trusts that it will be clean. There are well-established cases around the world where recycled water is used directly or indirectly for drinking purposes.
Namibia is the only country that has adopted the use of recycled water for direct potable use. Due to lack of sufficient surface and ground water supplies, and low rainfall in the s, the country had to develop a strategy to supply water on a long-term basis.
The water reclamation plant at Goreangab started to supply recycled water into the water distribution system in The plant was upgraded in the s to include extensive physico-chemical treatment and ozonation. The plant has been supplying water for more than 45 years.
Singapore currently imports water from Malaysia, and this agreement ends in As a way towards having a long term strategySingapore built a water-reclamation plant that produces treated water that it calls NEWater. The other example of indirect potable reuse is at Orange County, California.
The main source of water supply used to be groundwater. However, by the late s, increased development and agriculture drained the groundwater level to such an extent that it was below sea level. After evaluating different options, the County decided to use recycled water and for deep-well water to be injected into the coastal barrier.PROOF: Chinese industrial fluoride suppliers openly list sodium fluoride as 'insecticide' and 'adhesive preservative' in addition to water treatment chemical.
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