Subsidies are often aimed at: Transfers and Subsidies[ edit ] Transfers which are straight income supplements need to be distinguished from subsidies.
Can conditional cash transfers reduce obesity? A WD article by Levasseur examines the question in urban Mexico: This may require proxy indicators of the population risk of vitamin D deficiency, such as the prevalence of rickets e.
In a nutshell, use CDDs to disburse cash, not to ask for it. What about informal provisions of social protection? The challenge for policy, he argues, will be to harness this potential—not by trying to turn grassroots organizations into something they are not, but by supporting what they already are.
Further details on the update can be found in this technical note. Moving to Asia, Thailand is often touted a premier case in pursuing universal health coverage.
But what about informal sector workers with no social protection Literature review on nrega high out-of-pocket expenditures for severe illnesses?
A WD article by Neelsen et al shows that formal non-contributory health insurance financed by general revenues, combined with informal insurance of the residual risks, would appear to be reasonably effective in protecting living standards from the economic impact of illness.
Lee et al have a short Vox piece on the effects of mobile transactions in Bangladesh see full paper. More on tech in South Asia: For example, in AP the Village Revenue Officer is responsible for authenticating legitimate beneficiaries who face problems with the digital systems, and initial results suggest that this backup is working well.
As such, they stress that inclusion is as much about technology as it is about the ability of individuals and institutions to work with new digital systems. Some interesting resources on social protection and non-standard employment e.
Also in this case, there are calls for making social protection more universal i. As such, Africa could potentially capture part of the million labor-intensive manufacturing jobs that will leave China by What happens when migrants are allowed to vote?
A recent IZA discussion paper by Chevalier et al analyzes how immigration causally affects redistribution in a setting where immigrants are granted immediate voting rights.
Exploiting a historical episode of mass migration to post-war West Germany as a natural experiment, the paper provides evidence that the inflow of poor immigrant voters led to a more generous welfare state and had a lasting impact on preferences for redistribution. A couple of resources on crises: According to a new JDS article by Elleby and Jensen, middle income are more vulnerable than low-income countries as their structure potentially transmits prices more directly to poor consumers.
Since I mentioned food, a blog by Hossain argues that while food riots kicked off when global food prices shot up in andfuel protests tend to respond to distinctly national political events e.
Let me conclude with two book reviews:^ you don’t have to write the entire sentences highlighted in red-pen but just the keywords or phrases that’d help you recall the entire issue.
対抗者としてのステークホルダーエンゲージメントの理論的根拠とその可能性 / 野口, 豊嗣 / 國部, 克彦 () 模倣から創造へのロジック: 中国自動車メーカー「吉利汽車」の成長 / 李, 東浩 / 黄, 磷 (). Introduction. A subsidy, often viewed as the converse of a tax, is an instrument of fiscal regardbouddhiste.comd from the Latin word 'subsidium', a subsidy literally implies coming to assistance from behind.
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However, their beneficial potential is at its best when they are transparent, well targeted, and suitably designed for practical . EHC-C Counting Scale.
Features. Up to 30, display resolution; Rugged ABS plastic housing with stainless steel weighing platter. National Rural Employment Guarantee Act (or, NREGA No 42, later renamed as the "Mahatma Gandhi National Rural Employment Guarantee Act", MGNREGA), is an Indian labour law and social security measure that aims to guarantee the 'right to work'..
It aims to enhance livelihood security in rural areas by providing at least days of wage employment in a financial year to every household. The Mahatma Gandhi National Rural Employment Guarantee Act Ministry of Rural Development, Government of India.