The first apparent usage of the term "euthanasia" belongs to the historian Suetoniuswho described how the Emperor Augustus"dying quickly and without suffering in the arms of his wife, Livia, experienced the 'euthanasia' he had wished for.
After the development of ether, physicians began advocating the use of anesthetics to relieve the pain of death. InSamuel Williams first proposed using anesthetics and morphine to intentionally end a patient's life.
Over the next 35 years, debates about euthanasia raged in the United States which resulted in an Ohio bill to legalize euthanasia ina bill that was ultimately defeated.
Euthanasia efforts were revived during the s and s, under the right-to-die rubric, physician assisted death in liberal bioethics, and through advance directives and do not resuscitate orders. Several major court cases advanced the legal rights of patients, or their guardians, to practice at least voluntary passive euthanasia physician assisted death.
More recent years have seen policies fine-tuned and re-stated, as with Washington v. Glucksberg and the Terri Schiavo case. The Commission sustained in its findings that it was morally acceptable to give up a life-supporting therapy and that withholding or withdrawing such a therapy is the same thing from an ethical stand-point, while artificial feeding and other life-supporting therapy are of the same importance for the patients and doctors.
Before this report, to withdraw a medical therapy was regarded as much more serious decision than not to start a therapy at all, while artificial feeding was viewed as a special treatment. Appel documented extensive political debate over legislation to legalize physician-assisted suicide in both Iowa and Ohio in The driving force behind this movement was social activist Anna S.
Canadian historian Ian Dowbiggen 's book, A Merciful End, revealed the role that leading public figures, including Clarence Darrow and Jack Londonplayed in advocating for the legalization of euthanasia. Legislation and political movements[ edit ] California[ edit ] In the case of Barber v.
Superior Court, two physicians had honored a family's request to withdraw both respirator and intravenous feeding and hydration tubes from a comatose patient.
The physicians were charged with murder, despite the fact that they were doing what the family wanted.
The court held that all charges should be dropped because the treatments had all been ineffective and burdensome.
Withdrawal of treatment, even if life-ending, is morally and legally permitted. Competent patients or their surrogates can decide to withdraw treatments, usually after the treatments are found ineffective, painful, or burdensome. New Jersey[ edit ] In the United States legal and ethical debates about euthanasia became more prominent in the Karen Ann Quinlan case who went into a coma after allegedly mixing tranquilizers with alcohol, surviving biologically for 9 years in a " persistent vegetative state " even after the New Jersey Supreme Court approval to remove her from a respirator.
This case caused a widespread public concern about "lives not worth living" and the possibility of at least voluntary euthanasia if it could be ascertained that the patient would not have wanted to live in this condition.
Under the law, in some situations, Texas hospitals and physicians have the right to withdraw life support measures, such as mechanical respiration, from terminally ill patients when such treatment is considered to be both futile and inappropriate.
This is sometimes referred to as " passive euthanasia ". Ina six-month-old infantSun Hudsonwith a uniformly fatal disease thanatophoric dysplasiawas the first patient in which "a United States court has allowed life-sustaining treatment to be withdrawn from a pediatric patient over the objections of the child's parent".
For example, Washington voters saw Ballot Initiative inCalifornia placed Proposition on the ballot inOregon passed the Death with Dignity Act inand Michigan included Proposal B in their ballot in During the past 30 years, public research shows that views on euthanasia tend to correlate with religious affiliation and culture, though not gender.
Opinion by religious affiliation[ edit ] In one recent study dealing primarily with Christian denominations such as Southern BaptistsPentecostalsand Evangelicals and Catholics tended to be opposed to euthanasia.
Both of these groups showed less support than non-affiliates, but were less opposed to it than conservative Protestants. Respondents that did not affiliate with a religion were found to support euthanasia more than those who did.
The liberal Protestants including some Presbyterians and Episcopalians were the most supportive. In general, liberal Protestants affiliate more loosely with religious institutions and their views were not similar to those of non-affiliates.
Within all groups, religiosity i. Individuals who attended church regularly and more frequently and considered themselves more religious were found to be more opposed to euthanasia than to those who had a lower level of religiosity.
They are also more likely to have advance directives and to use other end-of-life measures. Some speculate that this discrepancy is due to the lower levels of trust in the medical establishment. One study also found that there are significant disparities in the medical treatment and pain management that white Americans and other Americans receive.
Black Americans without a four-year degree are twice as likely to oppose euthanasia than those with at least that much education. Level of education, however, does not significantly influence other racial groups in the US.Euthanasia is a unique practice of ending the life of an individual suffering from a terminal disease/illness or an incurable condition by means of the.
Euthanasia Research Paper. By Lauren Bradshaw. April 24, Using this service is LEGAL and IS NOT prohibited by any university/college policies.
As of , euthanasia is the most active area of research in contemporary bioethics. Active voluntary euthanasia is legal in Belgium, Luxembourg and the Netherlands. Passive voluntary euthanasia is legal throughout the US per Cruzan v.
Director, Missouri Department of Health. Free sample essay on why euthanasia should be legalised. Get help with writing an essay on euthanasia topic. Pro euthanasia arguments essay example.
Research paper on legalizing euthanasia. ] Euthanasia regardbouddhiste.com is a nonpartisan, nonprofit website that presents research, studies, and pro and con statements on questions about euthanasia and physician-assisted suicide and related end-of-life issues.
Some people find our use of the phrase "physician-assisted suicide" inaccurate and inappropriate, and they suggest we use . Euthanasia thesis statement writing. Thesis on euthanasia ethics, statistics, reasons, issues & facts. Euthanasia has a legal status in many countries including Netherlands, Belgium, Thailand, Australia, Europe, Luxembourg, Switzerland, and US states of Oregon and Washington.
Research Resources To Write Euthanasia Thesis. It is your. Euthanasia is illegal in most of the United States. Assisted suicide/assisted death is legal in Washington DC and the states of California, Colorado, Oregon, Vermont, Hawaii, and Washington; its status is disputed in regardbouddhiste.com key difference between euthanasia and assisted suicide is that in cases of assisted suicide, the individual receives assistance, .