Oppression, hierarchy, and spiritual relationships with nature also have been central concerns of ecofeminism.
Kate O'Connor This essay offers a very basic introduction to feminist literary theory, and a compendium of Great Writers Inspire resources that can be approached from a feminist perspective. It provides suggestions for how material on the Great Writers Inspire site can be used as a starting point for exploration of or classroom discussion about feminist approaches to literature.
Questions for reflection or discussion are highlighted in the text. Links in the text point to resources in the Great Writers Inspire site. The resources can also be found via the ' Feminist Approaches to Literature' start page.
Further material can be found via our library and via the various authors and theme pages. The A-level context For both the A2 Reflections in Literary Studies unit and the extended comparative essay, it is helpful to approach a collection of texts from a thematic rather than period or writer-based approach.
One example of such an angle is to examine literature by or depicting women, and to consider the development of feminist literature, in no small part because 'feminist perspectives' is one of the suggested ways of grouping texts for the A2 Unit 'Texts in Time.
Men's Treatment of Women In this early stage of feminist criticism, critics consider male novelists' demeaning treatment or marginalisation of female characters.
An example of first wave feminist literary analysis would be a critique of William Shakespeare's Taming of the Shrew for Petruchio's abuse of Katherina.
Gynocriticism involves three major aspects. The first is the examination of female writers and their place in literary history. The second is the consideration of the treatment of female characters in books by both male and female writers. The third and most important aspect of gynocriticism is the discovery and exploration of a canon of literature written by women; gynocriticism seeks to appropriate a female literary tradition.
In Showalter's A Literature of Their Own, she proposes the following three phases of women's writing: The 'Feminine' Phase - in the feminine phase, female writers tried to adhere to male values, writing as men, and usually did not enter into debate regarding women's place in society.
Female writers often employed male pseudonyms during this period. The 'Feminist' Phase - in the feminist phase, the central theme of works by female writers was the criticism of the role of women in society and the oppression of women.
The 'Female' Phase - during the 'female' phase, women writers were no longer trying to prove the legitimacy of a woman's perspective. Rather, it was assumed that the works of a women writer were authentic and valid.
The female phase lacked the anger and combative consciousness of the feminist phase. Do you agree with Showalter's 'phases'? How does your favourite female writer fit into these phases?
Gilbert and Gubar's thesis suggests that because society forbade women from expressing themselves through creative outlets, their creative powers were channelled into psychologically self-destructive behaviour and subversive actions.
A great example of the madwoman thesis in action is in Charlotte Perkins Gilman's short story The Yellow Wallpaper.
Read Jane Eyre with the madwoman thesis in mind. Are there connections between Jane's subversive thoughts and Bertha's appearances in the text? How does it change your view of the novel to consider Bertha as an alter ego for Jane, unencumbered by societal norms?
Look closely at Rochester's explanation of the early symptoms of Bertha's madness. How do they differ from his licentious behaviour?
French feminists postulate the existence of a separate language belonging to women that consists of loose, digressive sentences written without use of the ego. How does Jane Austen fit into French Feminism? She uses very concise language, yet speaks from a woman's perspective with confidence. Can she be placed in Showalter's phases of women's writing?
Women and Writing' that uses the works of Virginia Woolf and Silvia Plath to analyse the form and structural aspects of texts to ask whether or not women writers have a voice inherently different from that of men podcast part 1 and part 2.
In Professor Deborah Cameron's podcast English and GenderCameron discusses the differences and similarities in use of the English language between men and women.
How do more modern A-level set texts, like those of Margaret Atwood, Zora Neale Hurston, or Maya Angelou, fit into any of these traditions of criticism? Depictions of Women by Men Students could begin approaching Great Writers Inspire by considering the range of women depicted in early English literature: How might the reign of Queen Elizabeth I have dictated the way Elizabethan writers were permitted to present women?
How did each male poet handle the challenge of depicting women? The heroine was a man playing a woman dressed as a man. Emma Smith's podcast on The Roaring GirlSmith breaks down both the gender issues of the play and of the real life accusations against Mary Frith.
Placing Middleton or Webster's female characters against those of Shakespeare could be brought to bear on A-level Paper 4 on Drama or Paper 5 on Shakespeare and other preth Century Texts. Smith's podcast on The Comedy of Errors from What are the differences between depictions of women written by male and female novelists?Feminist political theory is a diverse subfield of feminist theory working towards three main goals: To understand and critique the role of gender in how political theory is conventionally construed.
Hardy’s novels are looked at in terms of dichotomies: nature/culture, society/individual and femininity/masculinity. These oppositions become interesting insofar as they are set against a changing society, from reality to industrialism, which in turn are associated with femininity and masculinity.
Over the course of those four decades, ecofeminist values, principles, practices, and orientations have been explained, described, reformulated, refined, questioned, and indeed criticized. Nowadays it seems almost naïve to talk of ecofeminism in the singular, since a . An Ecofeminist Approach Ecofeminism represents the main theoretical background, but not the only one, from which this scrutiny is based on, and it loosely describes movements and philosophies that link feminism with ecology (MacGregor ).
This has evolved from various fields of research. with the broader WCED paradigm of sustainable development (Hardy, Beeton, & Pearson, ; Hunter, , ), but little has been done to constructively address the emerging criticisms of . Antifeminism (also spelt anti-feminism) is broadly defined as opposition to some or all forms of feminism.
This opposition has taken various forms across time and cultures. This opposition has taken various forms across time and cultures.