Textbooks define biology as the science that deals with the study of life. This appears to be a simple, straight forward definition until the word science and life are considered. Science is the study of collection of knowledge of natural events and materials in an orderly fashion f Most people know that biology deals with the study of plants and animals, and probably recognize it as a science.
It is found in many cell organelles, such as plasmids in bacteria, chloroplasts in plants, and mitochondria in both plants and animals. DNA helps us to perform many actions in solving crimes, and also helps us to do scientific studies that were not possible until recently.
DNA has a double helix structure, its sugar phosphate backbone, made up of deoxyribose and a phosphate group are held together by hydrogen bonds and base pairs. These bases are adenine and guanine, thymine and cytosine. Science and technology is used for genetic diversity, selective breeding is used especially in farming for livestock.
Selective breeding means artificial selection means the controlled breeding of animals or plants by humans so only individuals with specific characteristics can reproduce.
Farmers use this technique to get the best quality cattle and produce from the animals they have. To get the best animal possible, for example a milk cow, the farmer will select the best cows from the heard to breed from, these may be the ones with the largest udders Dna science technology essay biggest milk yield, he will then breed from this animal, and the F1 offspring will be raised and used for milk.
In the F1 generation he will do the same again, selecting the best cows from the generation, the F2 generation will have the most favourable characteristics and will have lost any of the unfavourable characteristics as they have been bread out of the stock.
Dna science technology essay farmer then has the most favourable genetic characteristics in his heard to breed from. However this has its downfalls, by choosing selective breeding you reduce the gene pool. Allele frequency is reduced and this leaves the heard vulnerable to contracting infections and diseases, they have lost their ability to adapt and produce immune reactions.
When DNA of two species, one being radioactively labelled, are heated to separate the strands.
The mixture is cooled to allow the complementary bases to form hydrogen bonds. Some of the strands formed will be hybrids. These hybrids will be extracted then heated, the higher the heat needed to separate the strands the more hydrogen bonds between the strands, therefore the more closely related the species are.
This process is known as DNA hybridisation, it is used to determine species and how closely related they are. This is important as it allows us to determine how closely related species are and thus if they will be able to breed and have viable off spring.
Genetic engineering is very important in allowing us to develop medical cures as well as for other uses, such as food production.
Reverse transcriptase is the process of isolating a gene; the process will allow us to produce things such as insulin to help people suffering from diabetes. A cell that produces the protein is selected, for example the beta cells from the islets of Langerhans in the human pancreas.
These cells have large quantities of the relevant mRNA, this is therefore extracted. This double strand is the required gene, in this case human insulin. Scientists can produce this to make injections to give to sufferers of diabetes.
All organisms use defensive measures against invaders, bacteria are often invaded by viruses that inject their DNA into them and take over the sell.
Some bacteria produce enzymes that cut up the viral DNA.
One process produces blunt ends and other produces sticky ends. Each type of restriction endonuclease cuts a double DNA strand at a specific sequence of bases, known as the recognition sequence. When this occurs between two opposite base pairs it leaves blunt ends.
The other method produces sticky ends; the staggered ends leave parts of the DNA unpaired and therefore available to form new bonds. The restriction endonuclease identifies the recognition sequence and cuts the DNA, however instead of cutting in a straight line the cut is staggered leaving bases unpaired.
The nucleotides on the end are complimentary to the ones on the other side because they used to pair. If the same restriction endonuclease is used to cut DNA, then all the fragments produced will have ends that are complimentary, this means the single stranded end of a fragment can bond with the single stranded end of another fragment.
Once the sticky ends have paired up an enzyme known as DNA ligase is used to join the two fragments together. A vector is a carrier DNA molecule into which the desired gene can be inserted. Usually, the vector is a plasmid. The plasmids are modified so that they have two or more genes for resistance to antibiotics.
They should also contain a sequence that can be recognized by the same restriction enzyme used to cut the fragments. The site that is cut should be in one of the genes for antibiotic resistance.
Cut the genome with restriction endonuclease and mix with the plasmid that has also been cut with the same enzyme so that the sticky ends of the fragments and the plasmid are complementary. Hopefully, some fragments will insert into the plasmid DNA before either segment joins with itself.
The fragments are added to the plasmids with different outcomes. One is the plasmid rejoins, or the fragment joins with plasmid but the fragment does not contain the desired gene.
Alternatively the fragment joins with plasmid, however this time the fragment does contain the desired gene or finally it is unsuccessful and the fragment joins with itself.The strength of Science and its online journal sites rests with the strengths of its community of authors, who provide cutting-edge research, incisive scientific commentary, and insights on what.
Over the past decades, Forensic science has evolved and has been embraced by most states as a vital constituent of modern legal practice. It is widely used in courts as a . Using DNA in science and technology Essay Sample. A cycle is a biological pathway or process in which the end product of one cycle becomes the starting point for the next cycle.
DNA Technology essaysDNA (deoxyribonucleic acid) is a very important part of our lives today. It is found in the nucleus of cells on the chromosomes. It is found in many cell organelles, such as plasmids in bacteria, chloroplasts in plants, and mitochondria in both plants and animals.
DNA helps us t. Science and technology on fast forward: Science and technology feed off of one another, propelling both forward. Scientific knowledge allows us to build new technologies, which often allow us to make new observations about the world, which, in turn, allow us to build even more scientific knowledge, which then inspires another technology and so on.
As an example, we'll start with a single. Recombinant DNA Picture Essay Here is how I facilitate things.
Present the assignment and discuss the stages of the task: label features of diagram (using the word bank and yellow speech bubbles), identify each part of the diagram using the labeled speech bubbles, and then explain the sequence of steps in as coherent manner as possible.