Indian rubber industry has many positive strengths, but policy makers need to extend greater support to the industry to meet the challenges posed by free import of rubber products, high interest costs leading to slow shift in high-technology equipment, low rate of value addition etc India forms a booming market with a huge base of million consumers acrossvillages. India is the fourth largest tyre market in the world. The increase in GDP will be driven by the growth in industrial sector. The projected growth of Indian economy, growth in road infrastructure, rising per capita income, competitive pricing, new model launches, low penetration of cars in India etc are the key drivers of growth of the Indian automobile industry.
History[ edit ] United States Of America[ edit ] Before the Civil War, the meat industry was localized, with nearby farmers providing beef and hogs for local butchers to serve the local market.
Large Army contracts during the war attracted entrepreneurs with a vision for building much larger markets. The — era provided five factors that nationalized the industry: The rapid growth of cities provided a lucrative new market for fresh meat.
The emergence of large-scale ranching, the role of the railroads, refrigeration, and entrepreneurial skills. Cattle ranching on a large-scale move to the Great Plains, from Texas northward.
Overland cattle drives moved large herds to the railheads in Kansas, where cattle cars brought live animals eastward. Abilene, Kansas, became the chief railhead, shipping 35, cattle a year, mostly to Kansas City, Milwaukee and Chicago.
In Milwaukee, Philip Armouran ambitious entrepreneur from New York who made his fortune in Army contracts during the war, partnered with Jacob Plankinton to build a highly efficient stockyard that serviced the upper Midwest. Chicago built the famous Union Stockyards in on swampy acres to the south of downtown.
Armour opened the Chicago plant, as did Nelson Morris, another wartime contractor. Cincinnati and Buffalo, both with good water and rail service, also opened stockyards. Perhaps most energetic entrepreneur was Gustavus Franklin Swiftthe Yankee who operated out of Boston and moved to Chicago inspecializing in long distance refrigerated meat shipments to eastern cities.
Swift developed an integrated network of cattle procurement, slaughtering, meat-packing and shipping meat to market.
Up to that time cattle were driven great distances to railroad shipping points, causing the cattle to lose considerable weight.
Swift developed a large business, which grew in size with the entry of several competitors. Another such act passed the same year was the Federal Meat Inspection Act.
The new laws helped the large packers, and hurt small operations that lacked economy of scale or quality controls. Because of the Chicago packers, ranchers in Wyoming and feedlot farmers in Iowa regularly found a reliable market for their animals, and on average received better prices for the animals they sold there.
At the same time and for the same reason, Americans of all classes found a greater variety of more and better meats on their tables, purchased on average at lower prices than ever before. Seen in this light, the packers' "rigid system of economy" seemed a very good thing indeed.
Meat packing plants, like many industries in the early 20th century, were known to overwork their employees, failed to maintain adequate safety measures, and actively fought unionization. Public pressure to U. Congress led to the passage of the Meat Inspection Act and Pure Food and Drug Actboth passed in on the same day to ensure better regulations of the meat packing industry as well as better treatment of its employees working there.
Before the Meat Inspection Act and the Pure Food and Drug Actworkers were exposed to dangerous chemicals, sharp machinery, and horrible injuries. An interracial committee led the organizing in Chicagowhere the majority of workers in the industry were black, and other major cities, such as Omaha, Nebraskawhere they were an important minority in the industry.
UPWA workers made important gains in wages, hours and benefits. In the stockyards and meat packing employed half the workers of Omaha.This is not a pro-contra review.
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