This queen is said to have laid waste to the city of Aksum and the countryside, destroyed churches and monuments, usurped the throne from the ruling Aksumite king, and attempted to wipe out the remaining members of the royal family.
See Article History Alternative Titles: Afrasian languages, Erythraean languages, Hamito-Semitic languages, Semito-Hamitic languages Afro-Asiatic languages, also called Afrasian languages, formerly Hamito-Semitic, Semito-Hamitic, or Erythraean languages, languages of common origin found in the northern part of Africa, the Arabian Peninsulaand some islands and adjacent areas in Western Asia.
About Afro-Asiatic languages are spoken today by a total of approximately million people.
Numbers of speakers per language range from about million, as in the case of Arabicto only a few hundred, as in the case of some Cushitic and Chadic languages. The name Afro-Asiatic gained wide acceptance following the classification of African languages proposed in —63 by the American linguist Joseph H.
Relation to other language aksumite writing a book Origins The common ancestral dialect cluster from which all modern and extinct Afro-Asiatic languages are assumed to have originated is referred to as Proto-Afro-Asiatic.
Proto-Afro-Asiatic is of great antiquity; experts tend to place it in the Mesolithic Period at about 15,—10, bce. There is no general consensus over the location of the Urheimat, the original homeland from which began the migrations into the present locations of the speakers.
The doyen of Afrasian studies in the former Soviet Union, Igor Diakonoff, theorized that it arose in what is now the Saharafrom where several subsequent migrations took place after about bce, including the exit from Africa by speakers of what would become the Semitic languages.
Diakonoff accounted for the considerable linguistic diversity of Afro-Asiatic languages by suggesting that there was extensive interethnic and interlanguage contact throughout the region.
This would mean that speakers of Proto-Afro-Asiatic dialects migrated back into Africa via the Sinai Peninsula and the Nile River valley before they eventually reached the ancient and present locations of the five constituent language families in Africa—i.
Much later migrations from South Arabia brought some Semitic languages into Eritrea and Ethiopiaagain to be followed by the expansion of Arabic in the Islamic period. Based on information obtained from H. Ekkehard Wolff Speakers of Afro-Asiatic languages were among the first in human history to develop writing systems.
Some Afro-Asiatic languages are known only from documents written as long as 5, years ago; examples include Akkadian and Eblaite. Some have disappeared but left traces in the form of inscriptions; Old Libyan, for example, is found in inscriptions dated as early as bce.
Others are mentioned in records that were transcribed in European languages, as is the case of the Guanche language of the Canary Islands.
Coptic represents a third case; it originated in antiquity and was spoken until the 16th or 17th century ce but is now represented only by liturgical phrases used within the Coptic Orthodox Church. Relationships among the Afro-Asiatic protolanguages.
Divisions within the phylum Linguists generally recognize six divisions within the Afro-Asiatic phylum: These divisions differ in both the number of languages and the degree of genetic relationship as measured in terms of common inherited vocabulary and shared grammatical featuresissues considered at further length below see also comparative linguistics ; historical linguistics.
The degree of kinship between the divisions and subdivisions appears to be much more remote than that between the branches of Indo-European.
However, none of the existing proposals concerning the relationship of divisions within the phylum can be considered final.
Neither is there general agreement as to the subdivisions within the six major divisions. Some authors, for lack of robust evidence for subclassification, still follow Greenberg by accepting five coordinate branches within Afro-Asiatic or six, including Omotic in a separate family.
Others may favour a series of binary subdivisions such as those represented in the accompanying genealogy. Relationships among the modern Afro-Asiatic languages.
External relations Certain similarities to Indo-European languages have prompted scholars to look for a special relationship between Afro-Asiatic and Indo-European.
Some scholars even extend this kinship hypothesis to include the UralicAltaicKartvelianand Dravidian language groups. However, the common ancestor of these languages, if there was one, existed so long ago that it is almost impossible to apply sound comparative methods to modern languages in order to test this hypothesis.
The application of such methods involves the systematic analysis of the phonologies sound systemsvocabularies, and grammars of the languages in question. Languages are said to be genetically related when they meet two criteria: Solid comparative methods, although generally illuminatingare for several reasons difficult to apply to the languages and divisions within the Afro-Asiatic phylum.
Relative chronology is one issue that makes applying such methods problematic. The vast majority of Afro-Asiatic languages are living languages without any written documents that would foster insights regarding the changes that inevitably occur over time.
There are exceptions to this general rule; in some Semitic languages and Egyptian, there are documents that give linguists a picture of what these languages looked like—at least in written form—some 3,—5, years ago.
Using such attestations, Diakonoff classified Afro-Asiatic languages into Ancient, Middle, and Late Stage languages according to the extent to which they retained features of the ancestral protolanguage. In light of the great age of Semitic attestations, they carry this notion a step further, into the discussion of the hypothetical ancestral language.
Recent data from African Afro-Asiatic languages, however, tend not to confirm this theory. A third complication relates to vowel usage in the phylum: This poses obvious problems for the identification and reconstruction of vocabulary and grammar.
Common Afro-Asiatic features Afro-Asiatic languages share features in phonetics and phonology, morphologyand syntaxas well as a fair number of cognate lexical items i. Given the great antiquity of Proto-Afro-Asiatic, only a few of its features can be expected to have survived in all divisions of Afro-Asiatic.
Other features or words of Proto-Afro-Asiatic show up only in languages of certain divisions or subdivisions.
Phonetics and phonology Most Afro-Asiatic languages share a set, or inventory, of particular consonants.Afro-Asiatic languages, also called Afrasian languages, formerly Hamito-Semitic, Semito-Hamitic, or Erythraean languages, languages of common origin found in the northern part of Africa, the Arabian Peninsula, and some islands and adjacent areas in Western Asia.
About Afro-Asiatic languages are spoken today by a total of approximately million people. Aksum was the first African civilization, not including African cities under the Roman Empire, to produce coins (Pankhurst 26).
The creation of a system of currency is related to the intricate society that had evolved in Aksum. Aksum flourished for over half a millennium, producing a rich culture that created in the great stelae of Aksum some of the most spectacular monuments of the ancient world.
Unfortunately, little is known about other aspects of Aksumite culture. From inside the book. What people are saying - Write a review.
an African Writing System: Its History and Principles Ayele Bekerie Limited preview - Changing settlement patterns in the Aksum-Yeha region of Ethiopia: BC Joseph W.
Michels Snippet view - All Book Search results » About the author (). by Pastor Mark Downey" the story about Philip and the Ethiopian found in Acts It has been assumed by contemporary seminary trained doctors of divinity that the Ethiopian of years ago is the same as today, as if to say the demographics remained static.
Reinforcing our thesis of pre-Aksumite civilization, Yuri Kobishchanov in his book AXUM, argues, “one cannot doubt that wheat cultivation appeared in northern Ethiopia long before the beginning of the Aksumite period.” Furthermore, Kobishchanov tells us that “in pre-Aksumite deposits at Houlti, Melazzo, Yeha, Sabaea, and Mai Mefles were found .