Synopsis[ edit ] Prior to the beginning of the play, brothers Eteocles and Polyneices, leading opposite sides in Thebes ' civil war, died fighting each other for the throne. Creonthe new ruler of Thebes and brother of the former Queen Jocasta, has decided that Eteocles will be honored and Polyneices will be in public shame. The rebel brother's body will not be sanctified by holy rites and will lie unburied on the battlefield, prey for carrion animals like worms and vultures, the harshest punishment at the time.
Questions therefore arise as to what is and what is not essential to it. Is a play what its author thought he was writing, or the words he wrote? Is a play the way in which those words are intended to be embodied, or their actual interpretation by a director and the actors on a particular stage?
Is a play in part the expectation an audience brings to the theatre, or is it the real response to what is seen and heard? Since drama is such a complex process of communication, its study and evaluation is as uncertain as it is mercurial.
All plays depend upon a general agreement by all participants—author, actors, and audience—to accept the operation of theatre and the conventions associated with it, just as players and spectators accept the rules of a game. Drama is a decidedly unreal activity, which can be indulged only if everyone involved admits it.
Here lies some of the fascination of its study. For one test of great drama is how far it can take the spectator beyond his own immediate reality and to what use this imaginative release can be put.
But the student of drama must know the rules with which the players began the game before he can make this kind of judgment. These rules may be conventions of writing, acting, or audience expectation. Only when all conventions are working together smoothly in synthesis, and the make-believe of the experience is enjoyed passionately with mind and emotion, can great drama be seen for what it is: Drama in some form is found in almost every society, primitive and civilized, and has served a wide variety of functions in the community.
There are, for example, records of a sacred drama in Egypt 2, years before the Common Era, and Thespis in the 6th century bce in ancient Greece is accorded the distinction of being the first known playwright.
Elements of drama such as mime and dancecostume and decor long preceded the introduction of words and the literary sophistication now associated with a play. Moreover, such basic elements were not superseded by words, merely enhanced by them. Only then can dramatic literature be discussed as such.
The texts of plays indicate the different functions they served at different times. Some plays embraced nearly the whole community in a specifically religious celebration, as when all the male citizens of a Greek city-state came together to honour their gods or when the annual Feast of Corpus Christi was celebrated with the great medieval Christian mystery cycles.
On the other hand, the ceremonious temple ritual of the early Noh drama of Japan was performed at religious festivals only for the feudal aristocracy.
But the drama may also serve a more directly didactic purpose, as did the morality plays of the later Middle Ages, some 19th-century melodramasand the 20th-century discussion plays of George Bernard Shaw and Bertolt Brecht. Plays can satirize society, or they can gently illuminate human weakness; they can divine the greatness and the limitations of humans in tragedyor, in modern naturalistic playwriting, probe the human mind.
Drama is the most wide-ranging of all the arts: Common elements of drama Despite the immense diversity of drama as a cultural activity, all plays have certain elements in common.
The characters may be superhuman and godlike in appearance, speech, and deed or grotesque and ridiculous, perhaps even puppets, but as long as they behave in even vaguely recognizable human ways the spectator can understand them.
Only if they are too abstract do they cease to communicate as theatre. Thus, the figure of Death in medieval drama reasons like a human being, and a god in Greek tragedy or in Shakespeare talks like any mortal.
A play, therefore, tells its tale by the imitation of human behaviour. The remoteness or nearness of that behaviour to the real life of the audience can importantly affect the response of that audience: The second essential is implicit in the first.
A situation must be represented on the stage, one recognizable and believable to a degree, which will animate the figures as it would in life. Some argue that action is the primary factor in drama, and that character cannot emerge without it.
Since no play exists without a situation, it appears impossible to detach the idea of a character from the situation in which he is placed, though it may seem possible after the experience of the whole play.Jul 09, · A makeshift shrine sprawls across the base of an imposing concrete facade — flowers, stuffed animals, deflating balloons, a profusion of glowing candles.
Antigone has been produced with support from Square Chapel Halifax to whom we are indebted.. This was further to an Arts Council GFTA funded Research and Development period supported by Redbridge Drama Centre and Bradfield College.. Reviews and comments to date.
Sophocles, (born c. bce, Colonus, near Athens [Greece]—died , Athens), with Aeschylus and Euripides, one of classical Athens’ three great tragic regardbouddhiste.com best known of his dramas is Oedipus the King. Antigone has been produced with support from Square Chapel Halifax to whom we are indebted..
This was further to an Arts Council GFTA funded Research and Development period supported by Redbridge Drama Centre and Bradfield College.. Reviews and comments to date.
Jul 09, · A makeshift shrine sprawls across the base of an imposing concrete facade — flowers, stuffed animals, deflating balloons, a profusion of glowing candles.
MUCH ADO ABOUT NOTHING DAY 1: Students will view the film and take notes. DAY 2: Students will review definitions for the following; Setting, Plot, sub-plot, protagonist, antagonist, rising action, climax, falling action, and outcome.