See Article History Celluloid, the first synthetic plastic material, developed in the s and s from a homogeneous colloidal dispersion of nitrocellulose and camphor. A tough, flexible, and moldable material that is resistant to water, oils, and dilute acids and capable of low-cost production in a variety of colours, celluloid was made into toiletry articles, novelties, photographic film, and many other mass-produced goods. Its popularity began to wane only toward the middle of the 20th century, following the introduction of plastics based on entirely synthetic polymers. Some historians trace the invention of celluloid to English chemist Alexander Parkeswho in was granted the first of several patents on a plastic material that he called Parkesine.
History of plastic surgery The history of plastic surgery — from BC, through the s and world wars, to the present day Although the development of plastic surgery is popularly believed to have taken place over the past 20 years or so, the origins of plastic surgery are very old.
Plastic surgery and nose jobs in the s — by Antonio Branca The nose received the most attention from early plastic surgeons.
Von Pfolspeundt described the technique in the following stages: A model of the nose is constructed from parchment or leather.
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This model is then laid on the forearm and a line drawn around it. The marked area is then cut around and separated from the underlying layers in such a way that the bottom of the nose-flap remains attached to the arm.
The arm is then raised to the head with the nose-flap positioned on the face and stitched to the defect. The arm is then bound to the head to hold it in place see below. After uncomfortable days, when the skin has healed to the tissue of the defect, the lower part of the skin flap is cut, freeing the arm and allowing reconstruction of the nostrils.
The procedure may sound frightening now but it was cutting-edge at the time no pun intended.
Unfortunately for Antonio though, It was not until nearly a century later, after his demise, when Gasparo Tagliacozzi wrote his seminal work 'De Curtorum Chirurgia per Insitionem Libri Duo' on the surgery of defects by implantationthat the technique achieved widespread fame among European surgeons.
And ironically the breakthrough came from rediscovering a procedure developed in ancient India.
The severe-looking skin graft procedure see below was rediscovered in an ancient book called the 'Sushruta Samhita' - dating back to 8th century BC. The technique shown below was published in the 'Gentleman's Magazine of Calcutta' in October and it soon became widely used; known as the 'Indian Method'.
Following the use of this skin grafting technique, Felix Jean Casimir Guyon of Paris and Jacques Reverdin of Geneva started to develop more advanced skin grafts in their practice in ; the type that are still more or less used today. Plastic surgery during the war: These staged procedures differed from earlier plastic surgery because they relied on the growth and development of a blood supply from the recipient bed into the grafted tissue over many weeks or months.
Before and after plastic surgery photos are shown below, and they show the amazing progress that these techniques had on World War patients afflicted by the horrors of war. Plastic surgery finally meets the mainstream Infollowing the Battle of Britain, Gillies and McIndoe performed their pioneering operations on burnt airmen at the Queen Victoria Hospital with the media in attendance, pushing plastic surgery into the public eye.
The "Guinea Pig" club was formed by the airmen who had been operated on and was the first patient support group for burns disfigurement. It is still going strong today. These figures are reproduced with permission from the Gillies Archive, Queen Mary's Hospital, Sidcup Find out more about how modern plastic surgery has change at the Royal Free Hospital in the left hand navigation.The modern history of plastic surgery really started to take shape in the s and the s.
Plastic surgeons were moving to the forefront of the medical establishment, including one plastic surgeon who was appointed Surgeon General in , and another who won a Nobel Prize.
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Have you ever wondered where rocking chairs came from, or why cheap plastic chairs are suddenly everywhere? In Now I Sit Me Down. The History and Future of Plastics.
What Are Plastics, and Where Do They Come From? Plastic is a word that originally meant “pliable and easily shaped.”It only recently became a name for a category of materials called polymers. Available in a wide range of sizes, including custom designs, in both low and high volumes.
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Fast shipping and. Celluloid: Celluloid, the first synthetic plastic material, developed in the s and s from a homogeneous colloidal dispersion of nitrocellulose and camphor. A tough, flexible, and moldable material that is resistant to water, oils, and dilute acids and capable of low-cost production in a variety of.