Use in ancient cultures[ edit ] Aztec women are handed flowers and smoking tubes before eating at a banquet, Florentine Codex16th century. Smoking in the Americas probably had its origins in the incense-burning ceremonies of shamans but was later adopted for pleasure or as a social tool.
Declines in smoking prevalence would significantly impact the health-care and economic costs of smoking. Efforts to accelerate the decline in cigarette smoking include reducing cigarette smoking disparities among specific population groups.
However, little progress has been made in reducing disparities in cigarette smoking among persons of low socioeconomic status SES and low educational attainment. This report on cigarette smoking and the analysis and discussion that follows is part of the second CHDIR.
The CHDIR 3 was the first CDC report to take a broad view of disparities across a wide range of diseases, behavioral risk factors, environmental exposures, social determinants, and health-care access.
The purposes of this report are to discuss and raise awareness of differences in the smoking prevalence of current smokers and to prompt actions to reduce disparities. Current smokers include persons who reported smoking at least one cigarette during the 30 days before the survey.
Aggregated data were analyzed for two survey cycles. The — survey cycle included 42, respondents with response rates of The — survey cycle included 27, respondents with response rates of Demographic characteristics analyzed included race and ethnicity, sex, age, household income, employment status, and educational attainment.
Geographic location was not analyzed because of limited data for this variable. Household income was reported by poverty status, which is based on U. Census Bureau thresholds for federal poverty levels FPL http: Employment status was defined as fulltime, parttime, unemployed, and other.
Educational attainment was defined as less than high school, high school diploma or equivalent, some college, and college graduate. For adults, low-SES was defined as those persons with less than a high school diploma unemployed or living at, near, or below the U. Disparities were measured as the absolute difference between rates.
No statistical testing was done for this analysis. In this approach, CIs were used as measure of variability and nonoverlapping CIs were considered statistically different. Using CIs in this way is a conservative evaluation of significance differences; infrequently, this might lead to a conclusion that estimates are similar when the point estimates do differ.
For both youth and adults, little to no changes in smoking prevalence for those below FPL was observed from — to —; however, decreases were observed for youth and adults who were above FPL Tables 1 and 2. During —, the prevalence of smoking was Among adults, smoking prevalence was From — to —, smoking declined from The findings in this report indicate that during —, approximately half of youth who dropped out of school were smokers.
These findings underscore the need to address tobacco use early in the life span, particularly among school-aged youth, who might be more vulnerable, to eliminate tobacco-related disparities. Implementing the key effective strategies known to prevent and reduce tobacco use among youth are needed, including reducing tobacco industry influences towards minors, particularly those in low SES communities 5.
To make progress toward reducing the persistent higher prevalence of smoking among low-SES populations, current tobacco-control interventions should be targeted toward these more vulnerable smokers.
Educating the public about the harms of tobacco use through mass media campaigns is an effective strategy for raising awareness and decreasing smoking prevalence in the general population 6.
Advertisements that are emotionally provocative and contain personal testimonies are especially effective in reaching low-SES populations 7. CDC recently implemented its first paid national media campaign to encourage smokers to quit www.
Limitations The findings in this report are subject to at least five limitations. First, data were based on self-reports and were not validated biochemically.
However, studies have indicated that self-reported smoking status validated by measured serum cotinine levels yield similar prevalence estimates 9. Third, because NSDUH does not include institutionalized populations and persons in the military, these results might not be generalizable to these groups.Begin the activity with a discussion about the dangers of smoking.
Lead the discussion to why people choose to smoke. Bring up the subject of advertising and how it may influence one's decision to smoke.
Cigarette smoking is decreasing among all population groups except teenagers. Hypothesize why there may be an increase in teenage. To facilitate the discussion smoking as a public health issue has been chosen. The holistic impact smoking have on the wellbeing of an individual will be explored.
The stage of change model and the Healthy Lives () policy will be explored in relation to smoking. Cigarette smoking is regarded as a major risk factor in the development of lung cancer, which is the main cause of cancer deaths in men and women in the United States and the world.
Major advances have been made by applying modern genetic technologies to examine the relationship between exposure to tobacco smoke and the development of diseases. DISCUSSION. On the basis of current smoking patterns, with a global average of about 50% Cigarette smoking was uncommon throughout the world in , but smoking rates increased substantially in many high-income Makalah Trend Issue Keperawatan Maternitas KHOLIL.
Uploaded by. imam aviero. koesioner lengkap. Uploaded by. Try some of the following activities with your students the next time the issue of smoking drifts into your classroom.
Bonus: Download the printable PDF checklist with powerful controversial discussion topics that will make even your quietest students speak for hours. Cigarette smoking causes several lung diseases that can be just as dangerous as lung cancer.
Chronic bronchitis - a disease where the airways produce excess mucus, which forces the smoker to cough frequently - is a common ailment for smokers.